Metal Ions in Biological Systems, Na+/K+ Pump
Bioenergetics and ATP Cycles
Transport and Storage of Dioxygen
Heme proteins and oxygen uptake, structure and function of hemoglobin, myoglobin, hemocyanins and hemerythrin, model synthetic complexes of iron, cobalt and copper.
Enzymes & Mechanism of Enzyme Action
Introduction and historical perspective, chemical and biological catalysis, properties of enzymes- catalytic power, specificity and regulation. Fischer’s lock and Koshland’s induced fit hypothesis, concept and identification of active site by the use of inhibitors, affinity labeling and enzyme modification by site-directed, mutagenesis. Enzyme kinetics, Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk plots, reversible and irreversible inhibition. Transition-state theory, acid-base catalysis, covalent catalysis, strain of distortion. Examples of some typical enzyme mechanisms for chymotrypsin, ribonuclease, lysozyme and carboxypeptidase A.
Kinds of Reactions Catalysed by Enzymes
Nucleophillic displacement on a phosphorus atom, multiple displacement reactions and the coupling of ATP cleavage to endergonic processes. Transfer of sulphate, addition and elimination reactions, enolic intermediates in isomerization reactions, b-cleavage and condensation, some isomerization and rearrangement reactions. Enzyme catalyzed carboxylation and decarboxylation.
Biological Cell and its Constituents, Cell Membrane and Transport of Ions
Biological cell, structure and functions of proteins (amino acid structure and functional group properties)
Standard free energy change in biological reactions, exergonic, endergonic. Hydrolysis of ATP, synthesis of ATP from ADP.