Bioinorganic Chemistry

Metal Ions in Biological Systems, Na+/K+ Pump

 Essential and trace metals. Role of metal ions in biological processes.Na+/K+ Pump.

 Bioenergetics and ATP Cycles

DNA polymerization, glucose storage, metal complexes in transmission of energy; chlorophylls, photo system I and photo system II in cleavage of water. Model systems.

Transport and Storage of Dioxygen

Heme proteins and oxygen uptake, structure and function of hemoglobin, myoglobin,      hemocyanins and hemerythrin, model synthetic complexes of iron, cobalt and copper.

Bioorganic Chemistry

Enzymes & Mechanism of Enzyme Action

Introduction and historical perspective, chemical and biological catalysis, properties of enzymes- catalytic power, specificity and regulation. Fischer’s lock and Koshland’s induced fit hypothesis, concept and identification of active site by the use of inhibitors, affinity labeling and enzyme modification by site-directed, mutagenesis. Enzyme kinetics, Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk plots, reversible and irreversible inhibition. Transition-state theory, acid-base catalysis, covalent catalysis, strain of distortion. Examples of some typical enzyme mechanisms for chymotrypsin, ribonuclease, lysozyme and carboxypeptidase A.

Kinds of Reactions Catalysed by Enzymes

Nucleophillic displacement on a phosphorus atom, multiple displacement reactions and the coupling of ATP cleavage to endergonic processes. Transfer of sulphate, addition and elimination reactions, enolic intermediates in isomerization reactions, b-cleavage and condensation, some isomerization and rearrangement reactions. Enzyme catalyzed carboxylation and decarboxylation.

Biophysical Chemistry

Biological Cell and its Constituents, Cell Membrane and Transport of Ions

Biological cell, structure and functions of proteins, enzymes, DNA and RNA in living systems. Helix coil transition. Structure and functions of cell membrane, ion transport through cell membrane.

Bioenergetics

Standard free energy change in biological reactions, exergonic, endergonic. Hydrolysis of ATP, synthesis of ATP from ADP.