Introduction to Biochemistry and Historical perspectives

Weak Acid base, pH, Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, biological Buffer, polyprotic acid, ionic strength

Biomolecules: Definition, Nomenclature, Classification/Types, Structures and Functions


  1. Bioenergetics I: Concept of free energy
  2. Bioenergetics II: Biological oxidation reduction
  3. Bioenergetics III: High Energy Compounds


  1. Enzyme Purification
  2. Introduction to enzymes I: Properties, Active site, Nomenclature and Classification
  3.  Cofactors: Coenzymes and metal ions
  4. Enzyme II​ Mechanism of enzyme action: ES complex, transition state, activation energy, binding energy,​ Hypothesis of enzyme action: Key and Lock theory; Induced fit theory​;Classes of enzyme specificity
  5. Enzyme III​ Progress curve, Michaelis Menten derivation, Determination of Vmax and Km, Catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km) Lineweaver-Burk plot, Eadie-Hofstee Plot, Bi-substrate reactions (Sequential and double-displacement reaction) ​ Effects of Temperature and pH on enzyme activities
  6. Enzyme IV: Enzyme inhibition; Reversible (Competitive, Noncompetitive and Uncompetitive) and Irreversible inhibition of enzymes

  7. Enzyme V(I) Catalytic Mechanisms​: Acid and base catalysis; Covalent catalysis; Reaction Mechanism of RNaseLysozyme and Chymotrypsin  

  8. Enzyme V(II)​ Catalytic Mechanisms II: Metal Ion Catalysis; Catalysis By ​Approximation, Strain And Distortion
  9. Regulatory Strategies I ​ Allosteric Control of enzymes​ Feedback Inhibition; Properties of Allosteric control; Models for Allosteric regulation:​ The Symmetry Model (MWC model); The Sequential Model (KNF model); ​Allosteric regulation of Aspartate Transcarbomylase (ATCase);​ Different forms of enzymes​ (Isozymes/Isoenzymes)​ Lactate dehydrogenase)​
  10. Regulatory Strategies II:​ Proteolytic Activation​ (Zymogen Activation), Digestive Proteases: Fibrinogen And Prothrombin​; Reversible Covalent Modification​: (Phosphorylation With Special Reference To Glycogen Phosphorylase​)
  11. Intermediary metabolism
  • Carbohydrate metabolism and its regulation
  1. Carbohydrates Breakdown I: Glycolysis​; Rate of glycolysis in the absence of O2 (Pasture effect )​; Rate of glycolysis in the cancerous cells​ Fate of Pyruvate: Lactic acid fermentation; ​ Alcoholic fermentation​; Feeder pathway of glycolysis;​ Galactose breakdown and metabolic disturbances; Regulation of glycolysis (PFK, HK and PyrK), Glucose transporter and their regulation by Insulin​
  2. Carbohydrate Metabolism II: Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) and Anaplerotic reactions
  3. Gluconeogenesis: Reactions​ and the Key enzymes of gluconeogenesis Regulation of gluconeogenesis and​ Cori cycle ​ 
  4. Glyoxylate cycle and its regulation
  5. Pentose Phosphate Pathway​ Overview, Oxidative and non-oxidative phases​ Reactions and Key enzymes​ Regulation, Functions and Diseases of HMP Pathway
  6. Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation & Electron Transport Chain I: (Overview, Redox potentials and Standard free energy change of electron transfer, Electron carriers)
  7. Oxidative Phosphorylation II: Electron Transport Chain;​ Respiratory complexes: order and organization, Proton motive force, Chemiosmotic theory
  8. Oxidative Phosphorylation III​: ATP synthase: Structure,  Mechanism of ATP synthesis, P/O ration
  9. Oxidative Phosphorylation V:​ Inhibitors and Uncouplers​
  10. Glycogen Metabolism:​ Glycogenolysis and Glycogenesis and their regulation, ​ Hormonal Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism
  11. Ketogenesis:​ Synthesis of ketone bodies​
  12. Fermentation in different microorganism
  13. Gamma aminobutyrate shunt pathway
  14. Entner-Doudoroff pathway,
  15. Glucuronate pathway

Amino metabolism

  1. General reactions of amino acid metabolism: Transamination, Oxidative and Non-oxidative Deamination and Decarboxylation
  2. Overview of Amino Acid degradation
  3. Urea cycle, Linkage between Urea cycle & Citric Acid cycle, Regulation of Urea cycle
  4. Overview of amino acid biosynthesis
  5. Inborn errors of Amino acid catabolic pathways
  6. Biochemistry of Biological Nitrogen Fixation
  7. Biosynthesis of porphyrins
  8. Lipid Metabolism and its regulation
  9. Fat breakdown: ​Hydrolysis of dietary triacylglycerol, ​ Fatty acid breakdown, Role of carnitine, ß-oxidation of fatty acids, Oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, Oxidation of odd numbered fatty acids, Fate of propionate, Regulation of fatty acid metabolism,​ β-oxidation in Peroxisome, α-and ω- oxidation of fatty acids​
  10. Ketogenesis:​ Synthesis of ketone bodies​
  11. Fatty acid biosynthesis: Acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, ACP structure and function, Fatty acid synthesis, Regulation of fatty acid synthesis, Long chain fatty acid synthesis, Desaturation of saturated fatty acid
  12. Biosynthesis of Eicosanoids: Prostaglandins (PG) Thromboxanes (TX) Leukotrienes (LT) and Lipoxins (LX)
  13. Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols, Membrane phospholipids and prostaglandins
  14. Cholesterol biosynthesis and its regulation
  15. Lipoproteins (Chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL & HDL); Defects in cholesterol metabolism
  16. Metabolic and Inborn Disorders of lipid metabolism

Nucleotide metabolism

  1. Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and their regulation, Purine salvage pathways, Catabolic pathways of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides
  2. Biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides, Role of ribonucleotide reductase, Synthesis of deoxythymidylate, Inhibitors of nucleic acid biosynthesis