Molecular Biology PPTs

  1. Introduction to Molecular Biology
  2. Experimental evidences for nucleic acids as carrier of genetic information
  3. Structure, properties and various forms of DNA
  4. RNA: Types, Structures, Properties and functions
  5. Topological properties of DNA
  6. DNA Denaturation and Renaturation Kinetics
  7. C values and C value paradox
  8. DNA packaging into chromosome
  9. Chromosome banding techniques
  10. Telomere and centromere
  11. Giant Chromosomes: Polytene Chromosome and Lampbrush Chromosome.

Replication and Transcription

  1. DNA replication in prokaryotes
  2. DNA replication in eukaryotes
  3. Transcription in prokaryotes
  4. Transcription in eukaryotes and post-transcriptional modification (7 methyl guanosine 5′ capping and 3′ Poly(A) tailing
  5. RNA splicing
  6. RNA editing
  7. Reverse transcription

Translation and Regulation of Gene Expression

  1. Basic features of genetic code and Wobble hypothesis
  2. Translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  3. Post translational modifications
  4. Regulation of prokaryotic gene expression ( lac, trp and arb operon)
  5. Regulation of Eukaryotic gene expression (Chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, Environmental and Biological control,  DNA binding motifs and domains, activators, enhancers and insulators, RNA interference and antisense RNA )
  6. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes, Pseudogenes, Split genes, Super gene family

Transposition, Mutation and Repair mechanism, Recombination,

  1. Transposable elements in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  2. Mutations: Types of mutations, Mutagens, Screening chemicals for mutagenicity
  3. Homologous Recombination (The Holliday model and Double strand break repair model) and Site specific recombination 
  4. DNA repair (Photoreactivation, Base excision repair, Nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, SOS system).
  5. Dosage compensation mechanism
  6. Sex chromosomes and Sex Determination


  1. The Mendelism: Basic principles; The Chromosomal basis of Mendelism ​ (Chromosomal theory of heredity)​
  2. Exceptions to Mendel’s laws​; Allelic variation and gene function​ ​
  3. Linkage, Recombination and chromosome mapping in eukaryotes.
  4. Cytoplasmic inheritance.
  5. Chromosomal Aberrations: Change in Number and Structure

Microbial Genetics