Introduction to Biochemistry and Historical Perspectives


Introduction to Biochemistry

Weak Acid Base PH Henderson Hasselbalch Equation Biological Buffer Polyprotic Acid Ionic Strength

Biomolecules: Definition, Nomenclatrue, Classification/Types, Structures and Functions

  1. Proteins:
  2. Carbohydrates
  3. Lipids
  4. Nucleic acids


  1. Concept of free energy
  2. Biological oxidation and reduction
  • High energy compounds


  1. Introduction to enzymes: Properties; active site
  2. Nomenclature and classification
  • Cofactors: Coenzymes and metal ions
  1. Zymogens and their activation
  2. Enzyme specificity
  3. Mechanism of enzyme action: ES complex; Reaction coordinate diagram Transition state; Activation energy
  • Theories of enzyme action: Key and lock hypothesis; Induced fit (Koshland) hypothesis
  • Enzyme activity; specific activity, turnover numbers
  1. Mechanism of enzyme catalysis (General Acid base catalysis, covalent catalysis and metal ion catalysis
  2. Enzyme kinetics for single substrate (Michaelis-Menten derivation, Different plots for determination of Km and Vmax)
  3. Enzyme Inhibition
  • Factors affecting enzyme activity
  • Allosteric enzymes
  1. Metabolism
  2. Intermediary metabolism
  3. Catalytic strategies
  • Carbohydrate metabolism and its regulation
  1. Glycolysis
  2. Gluconeogenesis
  3. Fermentation in different microorganism
  4. Phoshopentose pathway (HMP pathway)
  5. Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) and Anaplerotic reactions
  6. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
  7. Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis
  8. Glyoxylate and Gamma aminobutyrate shunt pathways and cori cycle
  9. Entner-Doudoroff pathway,
  10. Glucuronate pathway
  11. Hormonal control of carbohydrate metabolism
  12. Amino metabolism
  13. General reactions of amino acid metabolism
  14. Overview of amino acid degradation
  15. Urea cycle and its regulation
  16. Overview of amino acid biosynthesis
  17. Metabolic and Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism
  18. Biological nitrogen fixation
  19. Biosynthesis of porphyrins
  20. Lipid Metabolism and its regulation
  21. Fatty acid degradation
  22. Ketogenesis
  23. Biosynthesis of fatty acids
  24. Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols, Membrane phospholipids and prostaglandins
  25. Cholesterol Metabolism and its regulation
  26. Lipoproteins
  27. Metabolic and Inborn Disorders of lipid metabolis
  28. Nucleotide metabolism
  29. Purine Biosynthesis
  30. Pyrimidine Biosynthesis
  31. Salvage pathway
  32. Biosynthesis of dNTPs
  33. Nucleotide degradation pathway
  34. Metabolic and Inborn Disorders of Nucleotide metabolism
  35. Inhibitors of nucleic acid biosynthesis
  • Integration of metabolism