Coenzymes, Cofactors and Metalloenzymes: Structures, Properties and Functions ​

Coenzymes, Cofactors and Metalloenzymes: Structures, Properties and Functions ​

February 21, 2022

Coenzymes and Cofactors: Role and mechanism of action of NAD+/NADP+, FAD, lipoic acid,
Thiamine pyrophosphate, Tetrahydrofolate, Biotin, Pyridoxal phosphate, B12 coenzymes 
metal ions with specific examples

  • Cofactors are the inorganic or organic substances needed by the enzyme for its catalysis
  • Coenzymes are organic or metalloorganic compounds required by the enzymes for their activities. 
  • Act as either transient carriers of specific atom or functional groups  or an electron (s)
  • Mostly derived from vitamins the organic nutrients required in small amounts in the diet.
  • Coenzymes often called co-substrates as they only bind to Enzyme at the time of reaction
  • Some coenzymes are tightly or even covalently linked to the enzyme known as prosthetic group 
  • Coenzymes are frequently consumed and recycled. Chemical groups are added and detached continuously by an enzyme. 
  • Metal ions play multiple roles in the cells among which the most common role as cofactors in the enzyme catalyzed reactions.
  • Metal ion cofactors may behave as co-substrates or activators for the reactions.
  • Many metal ions are remained as prosthetic group in metalloenzymes

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