RNA: Types, Structures, Properties and functions

RNA: Types, Structures, Properties and functions

November 27, 2021

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

  • RNA is much more abundant than DNA
  • Various types of RNA are existed in the cells
  • They are involved in gene expression and regulation
  • RNA may be the genetic material in some of the virus
  • They unstable in alkali undergo hydrolysis
  • Mostly single stranded
  • Present in both cytoplasm and nucleus

Difference between RNA and DNA

RNA DNA
Presence of Ribose 2’ Deoxyribose sugar
Composed of A, G, Uracil and Cytosine Composed of A, G, Thymine  and Cytosine
Mostly single stranded Double stranded
Intra-strand H-bonding Inter strand H-bonding
RNA is composed of 100-5000 np Large made up of millions of np
Hydrolysis by alkali Alkali resistant but get denatured
Involved in gene expression and regulation in cell Storage of genetic information

Types of RNA

 

Types of RNAs Primary Function(s)
mRNA – messenger translation (protein synthesis) , Regulation
rRNA – ribosomal translation (protein synthesis)      (Enzymatic function)
t-RNA – transfer translation (protein synthesis)
hnRNA – heterogeneous nuclear precursors & intermediates of mature mRNAs & other RNAs
scRNA – small cytoplasmic signal recognition particle (SRP)

tRNA processing    (Enzymatic function)

snRNA – small nuclear

snoRNA – small nucleolar

mRNA processing, poly A addition (Enzymatic function)

rRNA processing/maturation/methylation

regulatory RNAs (siRNA, miRNA) regulation of transcription and translation, other??

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